Gay and lesbian parents

There’s been a lively discussion over the past couple of weeks about gay and lesbian parents, stemming from comments about California’s Proposition 8 (pro | con) on the listserv of the California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists (CAMFT).

As a quick clarification, CAMFT is a state-based professional association that is entirely separate from the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) and its California Division (AAMFT-CA). I, like many folks here in the Golden State, am a member of both CAMFT and AAMFT. Neither group has taken an official position on this proposition.

Even among MFTs, or perhaps especially among MFTs, emotions run high on Proposition 8, which was approved by voters but is headed for a court battle. The proposition was written to deny marriage to same-sex couples in California. It does not outlaw civil unions, but instead is specific to “marriage.”

Commenters on both sides of this issue on the CAMFT listserv have argued that research is on their side. The Yes-on-8 side has suggested that research supports “‘traditional’ families as the best and most psychologically stable environment for children.” Those opposed point out that “traditional” families have their share of psychological instability, which is technically true but fails to address the question at hand: Do children of gay and lesbian parents fare worse in life due to their parents’ sexual orientation?

In a word, no. The research is surprisingly unequivocal. Charlotte Patterson, of the University of Pennsylvania, in a peer-reviewed 2006 article in Current Directions in Psychological Science, sums it up nicely:

Studies using convenience samples, studies using samples drawn from known populations, and studies based on samples that are representative of larger populations all converge on similar conclusions. More than two decades of research has failed to reveal important differences in the adjustment or development of children or adolescents reared by same-sex couples compared to those reared by other-sex couples. Results of the research suggest that qualities of family relationships are more tightly linked with child outcomes than is parental sexual orientation.

I don’t especially like the hedging of language in the last sentence there; just because relationship qualities are more tightly linked with outcomes than parental orientation, that does not mean that parental orientation is not linked with outcomes at all. But, looking over the article itself, that just seems to be a poor turn of phrase. Studies simply do not support links between parental sexual orientation and child outcomes.

An American Psychological Association resolution passed in 2004 (Paige, 2005) is equally clear:

There is no scientific basis for concluding that lesbian mothers or gay fathers are unfit parents on the basis of their sexual orientation (Armesto, 2002; Patterson, 2000; Tasker & Golombok, 1997). On the contrary, results of research suggest that lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive and healthy environments for their children.

Research suggests that sexual identities (including gender identity, gender-role behavior, and sexual orientation) develop in much the same ways among children of lesbian mothers as they do among children of heterosexual parents (Patterson, 2004a). Studies of other aspects of personal development (including personality, self-concept, and conduct) similarly reveal few differences between children of lesbian mothers and children of heterosexual parents (Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001; Tasker, 1999). However, few data regarding these concerns are available for children of gay fathers (Patterson, 2004b). Evidence also suggests that children of lesbian and gay parents have normal social relationships with peers and adults (Patterson, 2000, 2004a; Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001; Tasker, 1999; Tasker & Golombok, 1997). The picture that emerges from research is one of general engagement in social life with peers, parents, family members, and friends. Fears about children of lesbian or gay parents being sexually abused by adults, ostracized by peers, or isolated in single-sex lesbian or gay communities have received no scientific support. Overall, results of research suggest that the development, adjustment, and well-being of children with lesbian and gay parents do not differ markedly from that of children with heterosexual parents.

Most recently, a meta-analysis of 19 studies examining outcomes for children raised in gay and lesbian households (Crowl, Ahn, & Baker, 2008) concluded:

[P]arent sexual orientation was not a salient predictor for children’s development.

In fact, this meta-analysis found only one area of statistically significant effect from same-sex parents: Those parents rated their relationships with their children as being better than heterosexual parents rated their own parent-child relationships.

All this said, professional organizations are usually wise to avoid taking stances on specific resolutions in an election cycle. With emotions running so high on both sides, any stance the organization would take is likely to lead to members defecting. Policy resolutions, like those adopted by APA and AAMFT, seem to be the better approach.


Crowl, A. L., Ahn, S., & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.

Paige, R. U. (2005). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 2004. Minutes of the meeting of the Council of Representatives July 28 & 30, 2004, Honolulu, HI. Retrieved December 11, 2008, from the World Wide Web at

Patterson, C. J. (2006). Children of gay and lesbian parents. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 241-244.