Why are divorce rates higher in cities than in rural areas?

Divorce rates are higher in cities than in rural areas. While many explanations for this have been proposed, a common one has been economic opportunity. City dwellers generally have higher incomes than their country counterparts, and perhaps can more easily afford to move on after a breakup.

Not so fast.

The publication of Barry Schwartz’s The Paradox of Choice led some to speculate that his thesis — in short, the more options you have to choose from, the less happy you will be with the choice you make — could apply to romantic relationships just as it could apply elsewhere. (Schwartz actually speculates a bit on this himself in the book.) In other words, city dwellers may be more likely to divorce not because they make more money, but because they have more and better alternatives to their current relationship readily available at all times. New evidence supports that idea.

In a study on speed dating, researchers found that as the size of the speed dating group increased, selections became more skewed toward just a few select participants. This happened, the researchers argue, because the daters were less willing to make tradeoffs — like accepting less physical attractiveness in exchange for greater intelligence — when presented with a greater variety of options.

Faced with too much choice, the authors argue, we resort to more crude decision-making techniques. To put it differently, it becomes all about looks. And when a choice of romantic partner is made solely on appearance, how likely is it to last?

I’m especially curious about how this applies to internet dating. Some sites go for quantity (Match.com), others for quality (eHarmony) in the matches they make. The sites that present quantity are more likely to be considered meat markets, where appearance is key. I’m led to wonder — if Match.com sought to create more lasting relationships (and thus higher marriage rates and lower divorce rates), would they actually be better served to limit the number of potential mates they show to members? Science seems to be saying yes.